Day 3 :
- 5.Forensic Pathology
9. Digital Forensics
10. Computational Forensics
Australian National University, Australia
Robert D. Blackledge received a BS (Chem.) from The Citadel, Charleston, South Carolina, in 1960 and MS (chem.) from the University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, in 1962. Starting with the Florida Department of Law Enforcements Tallahassee Crime Lab in 1971, he worked in forensic science for over thirty years. Breaks included eleven years with the U.S. Army Criminal Investigation Laboratory-Europe, and with Abys NCIS Lab from 1989 to 2006. The author or co-author of over fifty journal articles and book chapters, he is the editor of, Forensic Analysis on the Cutting Edge: New Methods for Trace Evidence Analysis, Wiley-Interscience, 2007.
How many Cold Cases will go unsolved because the necessary evidence was never collected and stored? In the past we have been fortunate that in cases of sexual assaults and homicides the protocols for crime scene processing, evidence collection, SANE examinations, and autopsies were adequate to permit the examination of collected and saved evidence even as new, more selective methodology evolved. Did we anticipate the advance in blood stain typing from ABO to enzyme systems? No. Enzyme systems to the advent of DNA and Alec Jefferies RFLP? No. Discovery of the PCR reaction? No. Low copy number (touch) DNA? No. Its only through dumb luck those in the Innocence Project have jobs! This presentation will alert you to a type of evidence that in the future (not now), will identify the assailant (or exclude someone falsely charged) in cases of sexual assault/homicide where there has been intimate contact between the assailant and victim. Its collection would be quick and easy, and not require new technology. Why is it not being collected now? At this time it is of no value. How long will it take for the necessary technology to advance? Do you recall how long these same experts said it would take to sequence the entire human genome? We dont want to look back and say: would have, could have, should have.We must be proactive and insist on its collection NOW!
Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia
Title: Past, present and future methods for the assessment of chondrocytes viability: (a new parameter for the determination of the postmortem interval?)
Time : 10:25-10:45
Armin Alibegovic is a faculty member of medicine department in University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
The determination of the postmortem interval (PMI) is one of the most important questions in forensic medicine. The determination of the PMI during the late postmortem changes is less precise due to the lack of objective methods. Cartilage is an isolated, avascular compartment. Chondrocytes are sparsely populated, mainly fed by nutrient diffusion from the abundant extracellular matrix, relatively resistant to oxygen starvation and acidosis. These attributes enable the chondrocytes to survive for several weeks after the individuals death. Several studies of long-term chondrocytes survival have shown a gradual reduction in the viable chondrocytes percentage as a function of time and the ambient temperature. The aim of our studies was to determine the most reliable combination of cartilage source and assay for the in vitro postmortem chondrocyte viability analysis in the conditions that imitate a dead body. In our studies in the past we used manual counting under a microscope (MCM), cell viability analyzer (CVA), a flow cytometer (FCM) and a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). The largest reproducibility was presented for the knee joint and the CLSM which provided a slightly superior reliability over the CVA. Therefore, in the present studies we have used the CLSM, but because of the technical and cost time issues, this method should be reserved for basic studies and the CVA should be used in future studies because the CVA is more appropriate for routine work. Additionally, during our work we concluded that the chondrocytes viability (cartilage) could be a new parameter for PMI determination
José Vicente Pachar Lucio has completed his MPhil degree in Forensic Pathology from University of London, UK and his PhD degree from University of Panama Republic of Panama. He is Professor of Legal Medicine at Latina University and the Sub Director of Medico Legal Institute of Panama. He has published more than 20 papers in reputed journals and serving as an editorial board member of repute.
High temperature and humidity contribute to the rapid deterioration of bodies altering their aspect and the morphology of the injuries. The tropical climate also increases the probability of the appearance of artifacts due to external factor (especially animal activity) or internal (body factors). When a decomposed body is found, the post mortem interval is established using, among others, the available criteria of reference in the medico legal literature. Nevertheless, specific studies on post mortem changes and time of death in tropical environments, as those found in the Republic of Panama, are scanty. Most of the available information refers to the variations in moderate climates with seasonal variations. A review of the criteria of beginning and development of the cadaveric phenomena (especially decomposition) recorded by authors of different countries in different climates, with the intention of documenting the disparities of existing criteria and limited application in the establishment of the post mortem interval in tropical environments, is done, proposing lines of research in this topic.
Australian National University, Australia
Title: Cybercrime, Criminal Justice and the Funnel Effect: Evidentiary Challenges for Forensic Investigators, Prosecutors, and Judicial Officers
Time : 11:40-12:00
Cameron is an Australian Executive Endeavour Fellow. He graduated in law and psychology from the University of Melbourne and holds combined Masters level degrees from Macquarie University in international security, policing, intelligence and counter terrorism. He has also attained technical certifications in computer crime investigation, cyber-security, data recovery, and digital and network forensics. Cameron is affiliated with the Australian National University's Cybercrime Observatory where he has conducted in-depth research into emerging trends in forensic science, terrorism prevention, corruption, and modes of cyber-conflict. Internationally, he has worked with Transparency International and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. In the field he served with police task-forces and government agencies where his duties included provision of technical advice, expert testimony, and supervision of evidence discovery and analysis. He is also admitted as an Australian Legal Practitioner with professional pursuits related to authentication of electronically stored information, data protection, privacy, regulatory compliance, information security, and investigation of fraud.
With increases in reports of cybercrime globally one would expect to see a corresponding increase in successful prosecutions and conviction of offenders. However, this has not been the case, with many investigations and prosecutions failing to get off the ground. A funnel effect or bottle neck occurs when the number of cases reported is significantly greater than the number of cases prosecuted or convicted. As this phenomenon is pronounced in the case of cybercrime, it is important to explore factors impeding cybercrime investigation and prosecution to raise awareness and identify blockages. The technical complexity of cybercrime, jurisdictional obstacles, difficulties in obtaining evidence to sustain charges, and the limited capacity of investigators, prosecutors, judicial officers and jurors to grasp fundamental aspects of the science which facilitates the commission of cybercrime, are among the chief causes of this outcome. This presentation examines criminal justice responses to cybercrime, including the capacity of key stakeholders to address cybercrime and perform their core functions. Various challenges will be illustrated using a case study based on several notorious cybercrime cases. In particular, the following themes will be canvassed - The role of technology in the commission of crime; - The impact of national legal frameworks on policing cybercrime; - Techniques related to investigating cybercrime, and operational challenges; - Legal and forensic issues surrounding collection and presentation of electronically stored information (ESI) in criminal trials; - Elements of offences and defenses to criminal culpability; and - Capacity of criminal justice officers to adjudicate and the role of experts
Dr. S.K. Dhattarwal completed his MD Forensic Medicine from PGIMS, Rohtak in year 1987. He is the Sr. Professor and Head of Department of Forensic Medicine, Pt B. D. Sharma, PGIMS, Rohtak, Haryana, India. He is Medico-legal Advisor to Govt. of Haryana, India. He has published more than 27 papers in International Journal and 79 in National Journal. He has attended large number of International and National Conferences. He is member of many professional/medical organizations. He is President of Indian Medical Association, Haryana. He is associate Editor in Medico-legal Update – An International Journal and Editor, Haryana Medical Journal. He has recently contributed a Chapter on Disaster Management in book by Gautam Biswas
The word forensics has been determined from the Latin word 'forensis' which means forum or public while the word pathology literally means 'study of suffering'. Forensic pathology is an application of pathological principles to the investigation of the medico-legal cases. It is a field that stretches into both the medical and legal arenas. Forensic pathology is a specialized area within the overall field of pathology concerned with determining the cause and manner of death. There are two main branches of forensic pathology. Anatomical Pathology which deals with the evaluation of tissues and Clinical Pathology that involves the evaluation of body fluids with the help of the laboratory. Forensic pathologists are an integral part of investigation system. Forensic pathologists are medically qualified doctors who perform autopsies (postmortem examinations) on sudden, unexpected, or an unnatural death like trauma or poisoning. The information discovered through an autopsy provides investigators with vital pieces of information as to, what might be responsible for death of an individual. In most jurisdictions this is done by a "forensic pathologist", coroner, medical examiner, or hybrid medical examiner-coroner system. People often assume that forensic pathologists only deal with cases of homicide or suspicious deaths, however a large percentage, if not the majority of cases handled by forensic pathologists, are natural deaths. Without a trained & dedicated forensic pathologists, many death investigations would go unsolved.