Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 3rd International Conference on Forensic Research & Technology San Antonio, USA.

Day 2 :

  • 2.Forensic DNA Analysis
    3. Forensic Anthropology
    4. Forensic Odontology
    8. Forensic Engineering
Speaker
Biography:

George Adams is the National Director of Operations for the National Missing and Unidentified Persons System (NamUs), and holds a Master of Arts from the University of Texas at Arlington in Criminology and Criminal Justice. He is an associate member of the International Association of Chiefs of Police with an Advanced Peace Officers Certification from the Texas Commission of Law Enforcement Standards and Education. Mr. Adams served on the NamUs Missing Persons Advisory group, and co-authored the first successful National Institute of Justice NamUs Operational Competitive Agreement and two successful annual extensions for a total of $7.55 million.

Abstract:

Rapid DNA Technology (RDT) may hold the key to the elimination of a significant number of sentinel events. Sentinel events (SE) in the criminal justice system may best be explained through the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health Care Organizations(JACHO) definition as an unexpected occurrence involving death or severe physical or psychological injury, or the risk thereof (The Joint Commission, 2013, para. 2). The most notable SE in the criminal justice system today is a wrongful conviction which exposes all attendant parties to significant personal and institutional liabilities. The International Association of Chiefs of Police/U.S. Department of Justice released its August report on the Wrongful Convictions Summit. In the report, there were thirty recommendations to reduce sentinel events in the criminal justice system (International Association of Chiefs of Police, 2013). Sentinel events are likely the result of compound errors (Doyle, 2013). The recommendations of the Summit Advisory Group focused on preventing the compounding of errors (racial profiling, investigative biases, aggressive interviewing, faulty lineup protocols, false testimony and eyewitness errors) to which Doyle refers. Currently, the public safety community seems to be virtually silent on the use of RDT as a sentinel event prophylactic in fulfilling the criminal justice system’s goal to protect the blameless while holding the blameworthy accountable. The injection of RDT at the earliest opportunity in the pre-charging phase of the criminal process may provide relief from the seemingly endless rise of sentinel events in the criminal justice system.

Speaker
Biography:

M.AL SALIH, BVSC (Veterinary Medicine),MT (ASCP-Blood Bank), MS., PhD . He is Currently the President, Medical Laboratory Director & Forensic Technical Leader of the DNA REFRENCE LAB, Inc. Education: BVSC (Khartoum University), MS and PhD (Microbiology, Oregon State University), MT (Blood Bank and Transfusion Medicine, UTHSCSA). Serving as supervising pathology faculty involved in graduate medical education of medical residents/fellows in transfusion medicine at UTHSCSA. In 1997, Dr Salih pioneered the build-up of an accredited DNA testing facility for forensic, relationship and molecular diagnostic testing in San Antonio, Texas. An expert witness who testified on several high-profile forensic cases in US courts.

Abstract:

In the investigation of criminal cases recent applications of DNA-based methodologies for inferring genetic ethnicity are established. A sizable number of human diseases and the efficacy of therapeutic drugs have been linked to ethnic backgrounds. Such racially-related diseases and drug responders included cardiovascular disorders, sickle cell anemia, breast cancer, prostate cancer and responders to the therapeutic agent BiDil for treating congestive heart failures. Surprisingly, no DNA based ethnicity method was exploited to verify the assumed link. To this end, we have developed a logarithmic method utilizing the disease free STR genetic markers, which demonstrated the suitability to separate between the two entities. The developed software system is currently used by our laboratory under the commercial name “Ethnitest” for inferring genetic ethnic composition in racially admixture- individuals. The assay demonstrated low error rates and accommodated up to ten population groups with distinct apportioned-admixture probabilities. Among self-claimed African American, Caucasian, Asian and Hispanic American populations, the assay demonstrated that 20%, 35%, 55% and 95% are respectively admixtures. Upon further investigations, self-claimed Hispanic populations from three different geographical regions (North, Central and South America) showed invariably different admixtures. Major constituents of these admixtures were found to be Native Americans and Europeans. In contrast, self-claimed Africans showed minimal admixtures among West African populations. However, East African populations showed different admixtures with African, Asian and Middle Eastern as dominant ethnicities. Composition of the North Africans revealed the dominance by European and Middle Eastern. Impact of findings on disease disparity and personalized medicine will be discussed.

Jerry Melbye

University of North Texas, USA

Title: Forensic Anthropology, the Past, the Present and the Future

Time : 10:10-10:30

Speaker
Biography:

jerry Melbye completed his Ph.D. at the University of Toronto where he taught for 35 years before transferring to Texas State University. While at Texas State, he created the worlds largest outdoor human decomposition research facility which has since become one of the most highly respected teaching facilities in the country for students and law enforcement. He is currently a Research Professor at the University of North Texas and Forensic Expert with The National Missing and Unidentified Persons System. He is a Diplomate of the American Board of Forensic Anthropology, and a Fellow of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

Abstract:

Forensic anthropology has changed exponentially over the past three decades. We started out as a handful of anthropologists whose main specialty was the study of ancient human populations. We studied the age at death, sex, ethnicity, variation, stature, and pathology of the bones of Homo sapiens. In a curious twist of fate we were pre-adapted to assist in identification of unidentified victims. Forensic anthropology has become a widely respected profession that takes scientific evidence on the skeleton and applies it in a legal context to be used in a court of law. In my 35 years as a forensic anthropologist I have watched the transformation from anthropologist to forensic scientist. However, forensic anthropologists have found little acceptance within anthropology departments. Our research and training has been seriously compromised. As more and more forensic science departments are being formed, we are entering a new era of technological advances.

Speaker
Biography:

Irina Perepechina, Professor of Department of Criminalistics of Legal faculty of Lomonosov Moscow State University. She has both medical and legal education, Ph.D degree (1990) and Doctor of Medicine degree (2003) in forensic medicine (genetic identification). Her scientific interests focus on forensic DNA analysis, DNA evidence interpretation, DNA database, DNA phenotyping, forensic serology; legal aspects, theory and methodology of forensic science/medical law. She has more than 120 scientific publications and manuals. A member of ISFG; in 1995-1999 - representative of Russian Federation in DNA WG of ENFSI. At the University she lectures forensic medicine, forensic genetics, criminalistics, forensic science.

Abstract:

Since the "absolute" criterion of the determination of genetic identity can not be, in casework there persists the problem of assessing the probability values. There are different approaches to its solving. Our concept supported by the elaborated detailed mathematical mechanism for its implementation aims to avoid subjectivity in deciding on identity. It is to adopt a conventional scientifically based threshold of identity and declare it as a standard common for forensic experts and the court. The key point of the concept is that the choice of the criterion in question should be made on the basis of the adopted decision on what level of reliability of identification is acceptable to the domestic judicial system. The standard should be conservative and allow drawing a conclusion regardless of the factual background of the case. It is to be adopted by an authorized collegial body comprising: scientific experts (forensic DNA scientists, molecular and population geneticists, mathematicians) which competence is to calculate the risk of error depending on the probability values and to present the scale of risks in such a way that non-expert is able to understand their degree; specialists in the humanities who evaluate ethical and social aspects of these risks; authorized lawyers (representatives of law enforcement, judicial community, prosecution, advocacy) who assess the scale of the risks in legal and ethical framework and decide which level is most admissible for the justice system. While legal aspects are to be decided in domestic context, scientific aspects are common. The similar approach may be applicable to other forensics beyond DNA analysis.

Break: Coffee Break 10:50-11:05 @ Ballroom Foyer
Speaker
Biography:

Julie Roberts is Scientific Lead and Team Leader for the Anthropology, Archaeology and Ecology Department at Cellmark Forensic Services. She holds a Doctoral degree in the subject of Forensic Anthropology and Archaeology from the University of Glasgow, a Master of Science degree in Osteology, Palaeopathology and Funerary Archaeology from the University of Sheffield, and a Bachelor of Arts degree in Archaeology and Ancient History from the University of Manchester. She is professionally accredited by the Royal Anthropological Institute as a senior Forensic Anthropologist and is registered with the National Crime Agency as an Expert Advisor in Forensic Anthropology and Archaeology. She is a member of the Home Office Forensic Expert Group advising UK DVI on Forensic Anthropology, a Fellow of the Royal Anthropological Institute, a member of the British Association for Biological Anthropology and Osteoarchaeology, the British Association for Forensic Anthropology and the British Association for Human Identification. Her professional experience includes senior anthropologist with the British Forensic Team in Kosovo, Lead anthropologist in the 7/7 London Bombings and deployments to assist with military fatalities and victims of terrorism in Afghanistan, Iraq and Lebanon.

Abstract:

This presentation will focus on the applications of forensic anthropology and related sciences in complex cases. A review of recent developments in the field currently being utilized in UK forensic casework will be provided and a number of research projects aimed at improving knowledge in areas which will assist with criminal investigation will be summarized. These include the identification of small burnt fragments of bone using multiple techniques and the post-mortem preservation of human remains in a confined space. Three recent case studies will be presented. Two of these generated research projects which are currently ongoing and one utilized a number of scientific techniques, including anthropology which strengthened the evidence for the prosecution.

Irina Perepechina

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia

Title: Forensic research of DNA markers of hereditary disorders

Time : 11:25-11:45

Speaker
Biography:

Irina Perepechina, Professor of Department of Criminalistics of Legal faculty of Lomonosov Moscow State University. She has both medical and legal education, Ph.D. degree (1990) and Doctor of Medicine degree (2003) in forensic medicine (genetic identification). Her scientific interests focus on fo¬rensic DNA analysis, DNA evidence interpretation, DNA database, DNA phenotyping, forensic serology; legal aspects, theory and methodology of forensic science/medical law. She has more than 120 scientific publications and manuals. A member of ISFG; in 1995-1999 - representative of Russian Federation in DNA WG of ENFSI. At the University she lectures forensic medicine, forensic genetics, criminalistics, forensic science.

Abstract:

Such a socially important area, as the investigation of crimes, cannot exist in isolation from the progress in science – including molecular medical genetics, which in recent years is rapidly developing. Such research, however, require very strict legal regulation. In the context of compliance with legislation, study of health-related information is promising for the forensic examinations. It primarily concerns those cases when there is no a suspect, and the possibility of gaining of any search information on the individual who has left traces is critical. Many hereditary diseases are characterized by the distinct visible external signs which may be noticeable and can even serve as special signs. The forensic value of the detection in traces of the DNA markers of a certain hereditary disease may also consist in a preposition that the person could be observed for this disorder in a certain medical institution, or to be registered in a certain medical account, or subjected to the genetic testing, neonatal screening, etc. This information can be useful for the preposition of a certain contingent of persons and conducting search activities in relation to them. Phenotypic manifestations of hereditary diseases can be taken into account in the investigation also beyond the DNA analysis, in drawing up the subjective portrait of the person in question. With enrichment of knowledge about molecular-genetic nature of hereditary diseases the prognostic value of the detection of their DNA markers will be all the more rise, which may expand the basis for their forensic study

S K Dhattarwal

PGIMS, INDIA

Title: Work of a forensic anthropologist

Time : 11:45-12:05

Speaker
Biography:

Dr. S.K. Dhattarwal completed his MD Forensic Medicine from PGIMS, Rohtak in year 1987. He is the Sr. Professor and Head of Department of Forensic Medicine, Pt B. D. Sharma, PGIMS, Rohtak, Haryana, India. He is Medico-legal Advisor to Govt. of Haryana, India. He has published more than 27 papers in International Journal and 79 in National Journal. He has attended large number of International and National Conferences. He is member of many professional/medical organizations. He is President of Indian Medical Association, Haryana. He is associate Editor in Medico-legal Update – An International Journal and Editor, Haryana Medical Journal. He has recently contributed a Chapter on Disaster Management in book by Gautam Biswas.

Abstract:

Forensic anthropology is a specialized branch of physical anthropology, which deals with the medico-legal investigation. This branch of science grew out of need for skeletal & anatomic expertise in criminal investigations. Forensic anthropologists are often called upon by law enforcement agencies to assist in the identification & assessment of severely decomposed or skeletonized human remains. Such experts have vast knowledge of normal and variations in human skeleton, which they apply in their work to obtain reasonable and scientific conclusions. The main focus of a forensic anthropologist is to assess crime scenes, skeletal remains, develop a biological profile, compile supportive documentation and testify in the provincial and federal courts. Their knowledge of the human body contributes to the outcome of a death investigation by providing law enforcement agencies with expert opinions & conclusions, which ultimately aid in solving any given case. Although a large majority of forensic anthropologists are affiliated with educational institutes and universities, their need in the law enforcement agencies is unquestionable.

Speaker
Biography:

Rodrigo Ivo Matoso has completed his MSc at the age of 35 years from State University of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil (FOP-UNICAMP). He is the President of the Regional Council of Dentistry of Roraima State, Brazil. He is Forensic Odontologist serving at the Civil Police of Roraima State since August 2004. He was lieutenant in Brazilian Army from 2002 to 2003. Nowadays, he is a Doctoral student at State University of Campinas, Piracicaba Dental School.

Abstract:

Firearms can cause fatal wounds, which can be identified by traces on or around the body. However, there are cases where neither the bullet nor gun is found at the crime scene. Ballistic research involving finite element models can reproduce computational biomechanical conditions, without compromising bioethics, as they involve no direct tests on animals or humans. This study aims to compare the morphologies of gunshot entrance holes caused by .40-caliber Smith & Wesson (S&W), .380-caliber, and 9×19-mm Luger bullets. A fully metal-jacketed .40 S&W projectile, a fully metal-jacketed .380 projectile, and a fully metal-jacketed 9×19-mm Luger projectile were computationally fired at the glabellar region of the finite element model from a distance of 10 cm, at perpendicular incidence. The results show different morphologies in the entrance holes produced by the three bullets, using the same skull at the same shot distance. The results and traits of the entrance holes are discussed. Finite element models allow feasible computational ballistic research, which may be useful to forensic experts when comparing and analyzing data related to gunshot wounds in the forehead.

Luca Marmo

Polytechnic University of Turin, Italy

Title: Investigation of some vapour and dust explosions

Time : 12:25-12:45

Speaker
Biography:

Luca Marmo is Professor of Safety of industrial processes at Polytechnic University of Turin, Italy. He is a Chemical engineer and PhD in chemical Engineering. Since 20 years he has worked as technical expert in Court. He investigated more than 100 fire and explosions that occurred in civil buildings and industrial plants. He has research experience in the field of chemical reactors, loss prevention and dust explosion. He is the Director of the Center for safety of flammable atmosphere of the Polytechnic University of Turin, Italy.

Abstract:

Industrial accidents often entail a domino effect which enlarge the scenario magnitude and increase the challenges in the evidence collection process. The highest the level of damage the more difficult is the investigation since more variables such as the fire brigade intervention modality and strategy have to be taken into account. Large magnitude accidents are mostly the consequence of a chain of events which can be very articulated with several root causes connected each other in a complex network which forms a chain of events. More than ever such investigations can be successful only in case beside the evidence collection process a proper process of evidence analysis is developed. This phase should allow the investigation team to analyze all the possible chains of events so that the actual sequence is defined. This process leads to define also the root causes of the accident and, last but not least, to define the lessons learned. This paper describes the investigation of several vapour and dust explosions occurred in industrial plants. One occurred in the reservoir park of a plant that processed pomace oil to get edible olive oil, was followed by a huge fire and caused 4 fatalities. The second was a small explosion that occurred in a tank park where no flammable paraffin should have been stored. Fortunately this accident caused only minor injuries and few damages. Then three different aluminum dust explosions investigations are presented, all of those occurred in suction plants and caused one fatality and severe damages.

Sema AKA

Turkish Forensic Scientists Society, Turkey

Title: Direct and indirect age estimation methods for primary teeth

Time : 12:45-13:05

Speaker
Biography:

Sema Aka graduated from the Dental Faculty of Ankara University in Turkey in 1979, earned Ph.D. degree in 1983, Associate Professorship in 1986, and full Professorship in 1993, at the age of 38 years. She is the founder of the Forensic Odontology Unit and Head of the Forensic Odontology Committee of the “Forensic Scientists Society.” She is one of the editors of the Turkish Journal of Forensic Sciences.

Abstract:

Age estimation from primary teeth is an important matter for forensic odontology, which can be solved with the application of direct or indirect age estimation methods that are functions of tooth measurements. The most distinctive teeth among these are the central incisors because of their early development. The aim of this study is to determine the age of fetuses or infants by measuring the tooth development from the labio-lingual, mesio-distal, crown height, crown thickness, and root and tooth height. The data were statistically processed by regression analysis and regression formulas were derived. Age of teeth could also be estimated through the calculation of indirectly obtained data from the computerized tomography digital image measurements, where new regression formulas were derived. This method was proposed as Virtual Dental Identification (VirDent-ID) by the authors PS. Aka and N. Canturk, and is a matter of choice instead of traditional methods. Same dental measurements were tested on the image measurements and reliable results were obtained. The results revealed that age could be estimated from various tooth dimensions within an accuracy of ±± 0–2 weeks for both methods. The best measurements for age estimation can be obtained from the longest vertical dimension, which is the tooth height, and the best age estimation formula was also generated from the tooth height. In conclusion, age formulas derived from direct or indirect measurements of fetus or infant tooth development stages may be used as an aid for dental identification, until the completion of upper central primary tooth development.

Break: Lunch Break 13:05-13:50 @ Texas E

Ena Dion

International Network to Promote the Rule of Law (INPROL), USA

Title: Building an international network of professionals to enhance forensic work in post-conflict countries

Time : 14:10-14:30

Speaker
Biography:

Ena Dion is a program Officer with the U.S. Institute of Peaces Rule of Law Center and a rule of law facilitator for the International Network to Promote the Rule of Law (INPROL). Her previous experience includes providing technical support in the area of constitution-making to the United Nations Assistance Mission in Iraq and the Republic of Fiji's Constitutional Commission, and working on access to justice projects with International Bridges to Justice in Cambodia. She has also worked with the International Network for Economic Social and Cultural Rights in New York and with William and Mary Law Schools Center for Comparative Legal Studies and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding. Her work at USIP focuses on improving the effectiveness and efficiency of rule of law interventions. She graduated cum laude with a Juris doctor from William and Mary School of Law and holds a Bachelors degree in Philosophy and Political Science from McGill University, Canada.

Abstract:

Proper use of forensic methods is a key component of functioning law enforcement and justice systems. In the wake of conflict, forensic professionals are frequently involved in training police and investigative services in forensic methods as part of broader efforts to improve the justice system. INPROL is the premier global network for professionals working on rule of law reform in post-conflict and developing countries. Comprised of over 2,000 rules of law practitioners, including forensic professionals, from 120 countries and 300 organizations, the network is a valuable platform to connect with other professionals involved in rule of law promotion projects. These connections can help sharpen skills, grow your professional network and solve problems encountered in the field. INPROL also offers free research support for rule-of-law related questions, maintains an online library of thousands of resources and posts up-to-date news, events and job postings on the website.

Alan Diego Briem Stamm

University of Rosario, Argentina

Title: Standards, protocols and globalization of forensic odontology

Time : 14:30-14:50

Speaker
Biography:

Alan Briem Stamm, Dentist is currently pursuing doctorate in dentistry, 3rd cohort at the University of Corrientes, Argentina. He is the Chairman of Iberoamerican Society of Forensic Odontoestomatology (SOFIA), Teacher of Legal Dentistry at the University of Corrientes, Argentina, Teacher of “Forensic Dentistry" in Course University Forensic Assistant at the University of Cordoba, Argentina, Professor of Forensic Odontology School Police Corrientes, Argentina, Sub Director "Forensic Science International Management" Worlwide Group Policy. Professor of Forensic Odontology at level 1 and 2 Couse International Forensic Science at the University of Cordoba, Argentina. He is also the co-ordinator in Argentina for the Worldwide Association of Women Forensic Experts (WAWFE). Past Treasurer of the Argentinian Society of Legal Dentistry (SADOL). Author of articles in scientific journals. He was the speaker at national/international conferences.

Abstract:

A disaster is an unexpected event that causes death or wounds to a high number of persons and the condition of the bodies originates serious difficulties for the identification. The promotion of teams has been recommended for these procedures (DVI), always under protocols and standards recognized internationally. Since the teeth and its restorations can resist highly unfavorable conditions, the Forensic Odontology has played a key role in the identification of great number of victims. Though there are several different protocols for these cases, those of Interpol have turned out to be efficient on having demonstrated the need of expert and qualified odontologists integrating the DVI teams. Even if different trends and opinions have been described in the matter, it is clear that singular situations have promoted the problems of slanted conducts in the application of the odontolgy in the processes of identification. In this talk a review of some catastrophes from the odontologic forensic perspective is presented and proposal is made of the adhesion to a constant education, to the recognized internationally standards and to the adoption of global philosophies that it keep attentive to the requirements of the function that involves the expert odontologist.

Biography:

Maria Cecilia Pastor graduated Odontology, DDS from Faculty of Odontology of Catholic University Santa Maria, Arequipa, Peru. She is a Specialist in Dentistry Legal and Forensic Science, Orthodontics and an Expertise in Dentistry. She is the Area Coordinator of Peru WAWFE. She is the Vice President of The Peruvian Association of Forensic Dentistry (APOFOR), Active Member of The Peruvian Society of Legal and The Forensic Dentistry and Criminology, The Argentina Society of Legal Dentistry (SADOL), The Forensic Dentistry Iberoamericana (SOFIA), The International Association for Orthodontics and The Paulista Society of Orthodontics, Brazil (SPO). She is also the Founder and President of The International Group for The Study of The Dentistry EUROAMERICA.

Abstract:

Forensic dentistry has its own identification procedures, like the Dental tab, the Rugoscopia, bites, and the Queiloscopia or impressions of the lips. It also has a number of elements of unquestionable value to contribute to justice, much as in the intrauterine life and after his birth, elements that allow us to determine the identification of people and corpses. The Dental tab is a transcendental identification procedure because the registered states of the patients and their variation over time with arrangements of the materials that are used are almost unchanged over time and high temperatures and to this we add that teeth, the harder tissues of the body are compelling evidences to identity different people. It helps in case of disasters, aviation accidents, terrorist attacks, earthquakes, great destruction and identification of the common pit. The Rugoscopia is another dental procedure of identification. It involves taking samples of soft tissues, and these are different in everyone. Another identification procedure is through the snakebites. These are impressions of teeth left on people, objects or edible substances. We also have the Queiloscopia that consists of taking the labial by different methods and the traces are unique, unchanging and imperishable.

Rodrigo Ivo Matoso

Institute of Legal Medicine, Brazil

Title: Positive identification of a burned body using an implanted orthopedic plate

Time : 15:10-15:30

Speaker
Biography:

Rodrigo Ivo Matoso has completed his MSc at the age of 35 years from State University of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil (FOP-UNICAMP). He is the President of the Regional Council of Dentistry of Roraima State, Brazil. He is Forensic Odontologist serving at the Civil Police of Roraima State since August 2004. He was lieutenant in Brazilian Army from 2002 to 2003. Nowadays, he is a Doctoral student at State University of Campinas, Piracicaba Dental School.

Abstract:

Human identification is usually obtained by comparing fingerprints, antemortem and postmortem radiographs, dental records and also by DNA profiling. Sometimes forensic investigators come across some medical appliances such as orthopedic devices. These medical devices may be useful to achieve positive human identification. This paper aims to present a positive identification of a burned human body by tracking batch numbers engraved in an implanted orthopedic device found in the decedent’s left ulna bone. The examiners also collected and analyzed other valuable hints related to the case. Forensic examination can provide reliable positive human identification, even if few, but precise information can be obtained from antemortem and postmortem records. The present report illustrates a set of valuable techniques and how identifying numbers in orthopedic devices are helpful to determine positive human identification in cases of carbonization. As seen in this case, the forensic experts used low-cost identification procedures with accurate results, avoiding DNA profiling method that would be of higher cost and time consuming. Considering social and legal aspects, it is quite important that physicians and dentists understand that correct and accurate records of surgeries they perform, such as fixation of orthopedic devices and dental implants, are utterly relevant and helpful in cases of human identification

Speaker
Biography:

Chandrakanth Hungund has completed his MBBS in 1998 from Mysore University and MD (Forensic Medicine & Toxicology) in 2004 from Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences. He is working as Associate Professor in Department of Forensic medicine & Toxicology, JSS Medical College, Mysore, a premier institute in southern India. He has published more than 20 papers in reputed journals and serving as member of Board of Studies at JSS University Mysore.

Abstract:

Estimation of time since death is a paramount medico-legal issue in any postmortem examination. The present study is intended to study the correlation between postmortem interval and vitreous humor chemistry for sodium, potassium, and chlorides. The study is aimed to find male-female differences and differences between right and left eyes in vitreous chemistry. The vitreous humor samples were collected in 114 autopsies conducted in the study center and analyzed biochemically. All the cases where exact time of death was known and where the time since death ranged between 0 and 36 hours were included in the study. Data obtained was analyzed statistically using SPSS version 11.0. The present research did not find a significant correlation between vitreous chemistry and postmortem interval. The differences in vitreous sodium, potassium, chloride levels and the sodium potassium ratio among males and females and between right and left eyes was not found to be statistically significant.

Erdogan Oncun

Oncun Forensic Science Service, Cyprus

Title: Processing and DNA typing of old skeletal remains training courses in Slovenia

Time : 15:50-16:10

Biography:

Erdogan Oncun BSc (Hons) is Forensic Molecular Biologist and graduated from University of Wolverhampton, United Kingdom in 2011. He attended to courses, 15 - 24 November 2013 Forensic Odontology course, Ankara, Turkey and 07-11 March 2014 Processing and DNA typing of old skeletal remains course, Ljubljana, Slovenia. He is now owner of Oncun Forensic Science Service/Consulting in North Cyprus and member of ISFG.

Abstract:

DNA typing of skeletal remains has become very important in identification cases. We would like to present the 5-day training courses Processing and DNA typing of old skeletal remains” which take place since 2013 every month in the Laboratory of Molecular Genetics at the Institute of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia – EU, announced on ISFG homepage. In Slovenia 600 hidden mass graves from Second World War were registered in last 20 years with approximately 100 000 victims of Yugoslav communist armed forces and identification of skeletal remains of WWII victims was performed for some of mass graves. Nuclear DNA is the preferred genome of amplification for forensic purposes as it is individually specific and provides bi-parental kinship information. In the past, mitochondrial DNA testing was regularly employed in the forensic identification of aged skeletal remains. Recently, Slovenian researchers reported the successful typing of nuclear STRs from ancient WWII skeletal material. The training course with maximum of three participants includes experimental individual work with approximately 70 years old bones and provides the participants first-hand knowledge of how to perform bone DNA typing. Procedures for processing the bone sample (mechanical and chemical cleaning, cutting, and grinding into the powder in presence of liquid nitrogen), decalcification of bone powder, DNA extraction, DNA purification, DNA quantification with real-time PCR, DNA typing of nuclear STRs, electrophoretic separation of amplified fragments and evaluation of DNA typing results are shown on concrete old bone samples and the most of the steps are experimentally performed by participants. The course is designed to deliver advanced level training to experienced laboratory based scientists that are familiar to DNA typing technologies. The unique training course is performed in the forensic molecular genetic laboratory equipped specially for processing old bones and teeth. The course using forensic human identification methods and commercially available human ID kits is suitable not only for participants who would like to process old skeletal remains but also those who would like to perform in their laboratories the identification of relatively fresh human remains where no other material than bones or teeth are left for molecular genetic analyses.

Break: Coffee Break 16:10-16:25 @ Ballroom Foyer
Speaker
Biography:

Luca Marmo is Professor of “Safety of industrial processes” at Polytechnic University of Turin, Italy. He is a Chemical engineer and PhD in chemical Engineering. Since 20 years he has worked as technical expert in Court. He investigated more than 100 fire and explosions that occurred in civil buildings and industrial plants. He has research experience in the field of chemical reactors, loss prevention and dust explosion. He is the Director of the Center for safety of flammable atmosphere of the Polytechnic University of Turin, Italy.

Abstract:

The Authors of this paper are the technical experts that were entrusted by the Public Prosecutor to conduct the technical inquiry into the accident that occurred in the Thyssen Krupp plant in Torino on December 6, 2007. Here the inquiry methods are discussed and the main results of the investigation are presented. This was a complex accident which involved the unrolling unit of a pickling and annealing line. No previous similar accident were reported in the literature. Hence this was an unusual accident that implied a complex investigation. From this episode very important lessons for the steel industry can be learnt. The fire first started as a small localized fire that induced the eight workers on duty to try to extinguish the fire. Suddenly, a violent jet fire occurred. Seven workers suffered very serious burns, one died instantaneously while the other six did during the next month. The investigation was multidisciplinary. The main aspects were: data collection from PLC and their interpretation, material properties study, witnesses collection, damages examination. Also some CFD simulations made using FDS were used to investigate the fire dynamics and the magnitude of the effects. Cross linking of the evidences was the main instrument that allowed to distinguish among the different hypothesis on the accident dynamics. Also this process lead to define the root causes of the accident and the weakness of the plant and of the management system of the company.

Rainer Wortmann

Forensic Artist for the Department of Biometrics, Germany

Title: The Work of Supervisor Forensic Artists. Education, Methods, Special Cases and International Cooperation

Time : 16:45-17:05

Speaker
Biography:

Captain Rainer Wortmann is the head Forensic Artist for the Department of Biometrics at the State Office of Criminal Investigation headquartered in Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. He has been creating composites for more than 16 years and is the vice-chairman of the Federal Workgroup Composite in Germany. In 2008 he was trained by the FBI-Academy (Quantico, USA) in Forensic Facial Imaging and in 2010 by the NCMEC at USF (Tampa, USA) in Forensic Imaging Techniques. As Forensic Artist Supervisor, Wortmann continually researches the best techniques in creating composites, develops best practices in working with victims and eyewitnesses as well as searches for new scientific findings in how the memory of the brain works to facilitate acquiring detailed information from recall. Additionally, Wortmann organizes seminars, workshops and conferences while collecting and providing the newest reference materials for creating composites. He frequently provides training to Forensic Artists throughout Europe. Together with Dr. Heike Schmidt, Wortmann is writing a book that includes all components necessary in composite sketching which is scheduled for publication in 2014/2015.

Abstract:

Forensic Artists are specialists who know how to visualize and actualize the memory of a subject from the specific areas of an individual’s brain by using a modified cognitive interview technique. The goal of the forensic artist is to transfer all of what an eyewitness or traumatized victim describes into a perfect image through the use of digital imaging software and/or hand drawings. A composite, however, is not only a portrait of a wanted person. All identifiable and recognizable individual characteristics are useful to investigate and locate unidentified persons. For example, it can be helpful to display the head in profile view to show the specific shape of a nose or ear. A composite of an individual or group identifying a unique shape, appearance or specific clothing can facilitate an investigation. Identifiable objects such as jewelry, paintings, weapons, carry bags, and vehicles as well as the setting and/or specific buildings and landmarks can help identify the person(s) or location associated with the crime scene. A Forensic Artist is able sketch an age progression for longtime missing persons, children and perpetrators and reconstructs disfigured or decaying faces from corpses. Reference materials are critical in Forensic Artistry as the collective vocabulary, based on our individual mental images and schema, vary dramatically for developing detailed descriptions. Wortmann concludes that the optimal way for eyewitnesses to perform their task effectively and efficiently, is to describe what they visualize with the aid of specialized reference tools.

Biography:

Djillali BENOUAR has completed his PhD from Imperial College (University of London, UK) and his M.Sc. from Stanford University (CA, USA) and postdoctoral studies from University of Tokyo (Japan). He is a professor of earthquake engineering and Disaster Risk Management at the Faculty of Civil Engineering at the University of Science and technology Houari Boumediene (USTHB) in Algeria and is the director of of the Built Environment Research laboratory (LBE) at USTHB. He has published more than 25 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an editorial board member.

Abstract:

Disasters are increasingly being understood as processes and not discreet events. Moreover, the causes of disasters are driven by complex engineering, socio-economic, socio-cultural, and various geophysical factors. Such interacting driving factors, occurring across a range of temporal and spatial scales, combine in numerous ways to configure disaster risks. Using some selected disasters in Algeria, the dynamics of such risks and their configurations will be explored using a new approach and methodology, namely Forensic Disaster Investigations (also called FORIN methodology). The FORIN methodology came out of the recognition inspite of the considerable increase in knowledge about disasters, unfortunately losses are not showing any corresponding decrease. Indeed, it seems, the more we have learned, the more we are losing. The FORIN methodology is based on the idea that this situation is due to the fact that much current research is still informed by a focus on surface symptoms of observations and events rather than critical causes and processes of disaster risk construction and accumulation. Forensic task is perhaps similar to solving a picture of a disaster puzzle. Initially, there are dozens or even hundreds of apparently disorganized pieces piled when examined individually, each piece may not provide much information. Methodically, the various pieces are sorted and patiently fitted together in a logical context taking into account all the parameters. Slowly, an overall picture of the disaster emerges. When a significant portion of the disaster puzzle has been solved, it then becomes easier to see where the remaining pieces fit. The Integrated Research on Disaster Risk programme is proposing new methodologies to examine the root issues surrounding the increase in disaster cost both human and economic. This paper attempts, as a case study, to investigate the M6.8 Algiers (Algeria) earthquake disaster of may 21, 2003. On Wednesday 21 May 2003, at 19h 44m 2s (18h 44m 2s UTC), a destructive earthquake occurred in the Boumerdes-Algiers region affecting a rather densely populated and industrialized region of about 3,500,000 people. It is one of the strongest recorded seismic events in North Africa. The depth of the focus was about 10 km. The magnitude of the earthquake was calculated at M = 6.8. The main shock, which lasted about 40 sec, and the two largest aftershocks (both reached M 5.8 on 27 and 29 May 2003) caused the loss of 2,278 lives, injuring more than 11,450, making 1,240 missing and 182,000 homeless; they destroyed or seriously damaged at least 200,000 housing units and about 6,000 public buildings in five wilayas (provinces).